Appendix: Theologically Significant References to Newness in the New Testament

Study notes ▪ 1999-2000
Tags: Kainos (Greek word); Neos (Greek word); New Testament; Newness; Renewal; Salvation; Eschatology; Christian life
Excerpted from Newness in the New Testament

Matthew 9.14-17

14    Then came to him the disciples of John, saying, Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but thy disciples fast not?

15    And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? but the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast.

16    No man putteth a piece of new {agnaphos} cloth unto an old garment, for that which is put in to fill it up taketh from the garment, and the rent is made worse.

17    Neither do men put new {neos} wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and the bottles perish: but they put new {neos} wine into new {kainos} bottles, and both are preserved.

Matthew 26.26-30

26    And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed [it], and brake [it], and gave [it] to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body.

27    And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave [it] to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;

28    For this is my blood of the new {kainos} testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.

29    But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new {kainos} with you in my Father's kingdom.

30    And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.

Mark 1.21-27

21    And they went into Capernaum; and straightway on the sabbath day he entered into the synagogue, and taught.

22    And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes.

23    And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,

24    Saying, Let [us] alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.

25    And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him.

26    And when the unclean spirit had torn him, and cried with a loud voice, he came out of him.

27    And they were all amazed, insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, What thing is this? what new {kainos} doctrine [is] this? for with authority commandeth he even the unclean spirits, and they do obey him.

Mark 2.18-22

18    And the disciples of John and of the Pharisees used to fast: and they come and say unto him, Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not?

19    And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast.

20    But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.

21    No man also seweth a piece of new {agnaphos} cloth on an old garment: else the new {kainos} piece that filled it up taketh away from the old, and the rent is made worse.

22    And no man putteth new {neos} wine into old bottles: else the new {neos} wine doth burst the bottles, and the wine is spilled, and the bottles will be marred: but new {neos} wine must be put into new {kainos} bottles.

Mark 14.22-25

22    And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake [it], and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body.

23    And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave [it] to them: and they all drank of it.

24    And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new {kainos} testament, which is shed for many.

25    Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new {kainos} in the kingdom of God.

Luke 5.33-39

33    And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise [the disciples] of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink?

34    And he said unto them, Can ye make the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them?

35    But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.

36    And he spake also a parable unto them; No man putteth a piece of a new {kainos} garment upon an old; if otherwise, then both the new {kainos} maketh a rent, and the piece that was [taken] out of the new {kainos} agreeth not with the old.

37    And no man putteth new {neos} wine into old bottles; else the new {neos} wine will burst the bottles, and be spilled, and the bottles shall perish.

38    But new {neos} wine must be put into new {kainos} bottles; and both are preserved.

39    No man also having drunk old [wine] straightway desireth new {neos}: for he saith, The old is better.

Luke 22.15-20

15    And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:

16    For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

17    And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide [it] among yourselves:

18    For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.

19    And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake [it], and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.

20    Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup [is] the new {kainos} testament in my blood, which is shed for you.

John 13.34-35

34    A new {kainos} commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.

35    By this shall all [men] know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.

Acts 17.16-21

16    Now while Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was stirred in him, when he saw the city wholly given to idolatry.

17    Therefore disputed he in the synagogue with the Jews, and with the devout persons, and in the market daily with them that met with him.

18    Then certain philosophers of the Epicureans, and of the Stoicks, encountered him. And some said, What will this babbler say? other some, He seemeth to be a setter forth of strange gods: because he preached unto them Jesus, and the resurrection.

19    And they took him, and brought him unto Areopagus, saying, May we know what this new {kainos} doctrine, whereof thou speakest, [is]?

20    For thou bringest certain strange things to our ears: we would know therefore what these things mean.

21    (For all the Athenians and strangers which were there spent their time in nothing else, but either to tell, or to hear some new {kainos} thing.)

Romans 6.1-6

1    What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?

2    God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?

3    Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death?

4    Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness {kainotes} of life.

5    For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also [in the likeness] of [his] resurrection:

6    Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with [him], that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.

Romans 7.5-6

5    For when we were in the flesh, the motions of sins, which were by the law, did work in our members to bring forth fruit unto death.

6    But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness {kainotes} of spirit, and not [in] the oldness of the letter.

Romans 12.1-2

1    I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, [which is] your reasonable service.

2    And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing {anakainosis} of your mind, that ye may prove what [is] that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.

1 Corinthians 5.1-8

1    It is reported commonly [that there is] fornication among you, and such fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father's wife.

2    And ye are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he that hath done this deed might be taken away from among you.

3    For I verily, as absent in body, but present in spirit, have judged already, as though I were present, [concerning] him that hath so done this deed,

4    In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ,

5    To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.

6    Your glorying [is] not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump?

7    Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new {neos} lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us:

8    Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened [bread] of sincerity and truth.

1 Corinthians 11.23-26

23    For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the [same] night in which he was betrayed took bread:

24    And when he had given thanks, he brake [it], and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.

25    After the same manner also [he took] the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new {kainos} testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink [it], in remembrance of me.

26    For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come.

2 Corinthians 3.4-11

4    And such trust have we through Christ to God-ward:

5    Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing as of ourselves; but our sufficiency [is] of God;

6    Who also hath made us able ministers of the new {kainos} testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.

7    But if the ministration of death, written [and] engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which [glory] was to be done away:

8    How shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious?

9    For if the ministration of condemnation [be] glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.

10    For even that which was made glorious had no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth.

11    For if that which is done away [was] glorious, much more that which remaineth [is] glorious.

2 Corinthians 4.16-18

16    For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man perish, yet the inward [man] is renewed {anakainoo} day by day.

17    For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding [and] eternal weight of glory;

18    While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen [are] temporal; but the things which are not seen [are] eternal.

2 Corinthians 5.14-17

14    For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead:

15    And [that] he died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them, and rose again.

16    Wherefore henceforth know we no man after the flesh: yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we [him] no more.

17    Therefore if any man [be] in Christ, [he is] a new {kainos} creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new {kainos}.

Galatians 6.12-15

12    As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ.

13    For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh.

14    But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.

15    For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new {kainos} creature.

Ephesians 2.11-18

11    Wherefore remember, that ye [being] in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands;

12    That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:

13    But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ.

14    For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition [between us];

15    Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, [even] the law of commandments [contained] in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new {kainos} man, [so] making peace;

16    And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby:

17    And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.

18    For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.

Ephesians 4.20-24

20    But ye have not so learned Christ;

21    If so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus:

22    That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;

23    And be renewed {ananeoo} in the spirit of your mind;

24    And that ye put on the new {kainos} man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.

Colossians 3.8-11

8    But now ye also put off all these; anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of your mouth.

9    Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds;

10    And have put on the new {neos} [man], which is renewed {anakainoo} in knowledge after the image of him that created him:

11    Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond [nor] free: but Christ [is] all, and in all.

Titus 3.3-8

3    For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, [and] hating one another.

4    But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,

5    Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing {anakainosis} of the Holy Ghost;

6    Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour;

7    That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.

8    [This is] a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou affirm constantly, that they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable unto men.

Hebrews 8.6-13

6    But now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises.

7    For if that first [covenant] had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.

8    For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new {kainos} covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:

9    Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord.

10    For this [is] the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:

11    And they shall not teach every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest.

12    For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more.

13    In that he saith, A new {kainos} [covenant], he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old [is] ready to vanish away.

Hebrews 9.11-15

11    But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building;

12    Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption [for us].

13    For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh:

14    How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?

15    And for this cause he is the mediator of the new {kainos} testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions [that were] under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.

Hebrews 10.19-22

19    Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus,

20    By a new {prosphatos} and living way, which he hath consecrated {egkainizo} for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh;

21    And [having] an high priest over the house of God;

22    Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.

Hebrews 12.18-24

18    For ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest,

19    And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which [voice] they that heard intreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more:

20    (For they could not endure that which was commanded, And if so much as a beast touch the mountain, it shall be stoned, or thrust through with a dart:

21    And so terrible was the sight, [that] Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake:)

22    But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels,

23    To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,

24    And to Jesus the mediator of the new {neos} covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than [that of] Abel.

2 Peter 3.9-14

9    The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

10    But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up.

11    [Seeing] then [that] all these things shall be dissolved, what manner [of persons] ought ye to be in [all] holy conversation and godliness,

12    Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God, wherein the heavens being on fire shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat?

13    Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for new {kainos} heavens and a new {kainos} earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness.

14    Wherefore, beloved, seeing that ye look for such things, be diligent that ye may be found of him in peace, without spot, and blameless.

1 John 2.6-11

7    Brethren, I write no new {kainos} commandment unto you, but an old commandment which ye had from the beginning. The old commandment is the word which ye have heard from the beginning.

8    Again, a new {kainos} commandment I write unto you, which thing is true in him and in you: because the darkness is past, and the true light now shineth.

9    He that saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, is in darkness even until now.

10    He that loveth his brother abideth in the light, and there is none occasion of stumbling in him.

11    But he that hateth his brother is in darkness, and walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because that darkness hath blinded his eyes.

2 John 5-6

5    And now I beseech thee, lady, not as though I wrote a new {kainos} commandment unto thee, but that which we had from the beginning, that we love one another.

6    And this is love, that we walk after his commandments. This is the commandment, That, as ye have heard from the beginning, ye should walk in it.

Revelation 2.12-17

12    And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;

13    I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, [even] where Satan's seat [is]: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas [was] my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.

14    But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication.

15    So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate.

16    Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of my mouth.

17    He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new {kainos} name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth [it].

Revelation 3.7-13

7    And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;

8    I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name.

9    Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.

10    Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.

11    Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown.

12    Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, [which is] new {kainos} Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and [I will write upon him] my new {kainos} name.

13    He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

Revelation 5.6-14

6    And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.

7    And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne.

8    And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four [and] twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.

9    And they sung a new {kainos} song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;

10   And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.

11    And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands;

12    Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing.

13    And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, [be] unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever.

14    And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four [and] twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.

Revelation 14.1-5

1    And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty [and] four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads.

2    And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps:

3    And they sung as it were a new {kainos} song before the throne, and before the four beasts, and the elders: and no man could learn that song but the hundred [and] forty [and] four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth.

4    These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, [being] the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb.

5    And in their mouth was found no guile: for they are without fault before the throne of God.

Revelation 21.1-6

1    And I saw a new {kainos} heaven and a new {kainos} earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.

2    And I John saw the holy city, new {kainos} Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.

3    And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God [is] with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, [and be] their God.

4    And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.

5    And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new {kainos}. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.

6    And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.